TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR BARRIER ANALYSIS
1-Safe hygiene in handling of infant faeces
2- Use of latrines
3- Appropriate household water treatment and safe storage
Position Type: Consultant/Firm
Duration: 31 DAYS
Start date: 28th July 2018
Background and Introduction
Save the Children in Somalia (SCI) has been operational in Somaliland/Somalia for over 40 years, with programmes across the following sectors: WASH, Food Security and Livelihoods, Health, Nutrition, Health, and Shelter, with Disaster Risk Reduction and Child Protection mainstreamed where possible. Save the Children currently implementing programmes in Central South Somalia, Somaliland and Puntland.
Save the Children is seeking a consultant to conduct barrier analysis in Mogadishuwhich uses a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods to identify what is preventing a target group from adopting a specific behaviour, as well as identifying enablers of the behaviour. The results of the questions are compared amongst groups of people who already have adopted the behaviour (called “Doers”); and people who haven’t yet adopted the new behaviour (called “Non-Doers”). By comparing these two groups, it is possible to assess what determines whether or not people follow this behaviour and which of these behavioural “determinants” are the most important.
The expected result of the Barrier Analyses is to understand existing hygiene practices, identify behavioural determinants, and determine key messages and activities for interventions focused on hygiene behaviour change. This will supplement existing hygiene-related BAs which have been conducted such as hand-washing with soap at critical times.
Purpose of the consultancy
The specific purpose of this consultancy is to conduct formative research to:
determine key barriers to 3 WASH related behavioural change and key determinant for adopting these 3practices in target groups
To better understand the effectiveness of existing channels of communication in target communities in order to inform the Behaviours Change Communication (BCC) strategy
Identify behavioural determinants, key messages and activities
All these behaviours should be measured taking into account gender, age and disability in targeted communities.
Scope of Work/ Work Assignments:
The scope of work for the BA entails the following:
Critical analysis of current SBC approaches towards addressing hygiene practices, methods and tools/IEC implemented by Save the Children in Mogadishu. Capturing what others are doing differently/better, messages and the way they are disseminated (range of communication channels and methodologies that work)
To gain insights and address the social and behavioural determinants associated with hygiene practices and the mix of communication channels
The key behaviours to be examined include: three life-saving practices:
safe handling and disposal of child faeces and hand-washing and baby washing with soap by carer
Use of latrines
Appropriate household water treatment and safe storage
The individual/institutional consultant(s) will develop the research methodology. It is recommended that the Socio-Ecologic Model (SEM) is applied by the researchers to provide a comprehensive picture of the participant groups at different levels (micro, meso, and macro) and their power of influence on hygienebehaviours. In collaboration with the SC WASH Staff and MoH, the consultant will identify select communities in at least settlement in each camp and the target participant groups.
Develop questionnaire for doers and non-doers surveys (for both quantitative and qualitative data collection) in consultation with Ministry of Health (Public Health Department) and after a field testing exercise
Design methodologies for data collection from representative sample sizes for doer and non-doers
Detailed BCC final strategy action plan, including milestones and indicators to monitor and evaluate the success of the plan based on the context
A set of field-tested and tailored messages related to key studied behaviours.
Conduct Three 2-day practical training to key staff and partners (outreach workers, hygiene promotion manager, community champions, etc…) on how to implement effective SBCC methods related to the analysed barriers
Barrier Analysis (BA) is an assessment which uses a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods to identify what is preventing a target group from adopting a specific behaviour, as well as identifying enablers of the behaviour. The results of the questions are compared amongst groups of people who already have adopted the behaviour (called “Doers”); and people who haven’t yet adopted the new behaviour (called “Non-Doers”). By comparing these two groups, it is possible to assess what determines whether or not people follow this behaviour and which of these behavioural “determinants” are the most important.
Summary of process:
A standard questionnaire is used for each behaviour and questions are asked of individuals from the Priority Group (PG). Each BA will have specific PG: PG for infant faeces management are primary caregiver of young children, PG for “use of latrine” will be children, PG for appropriate household water handling/mgt are the caretakers for household water (usually women)
Using the screening sections of the questionnaire, they are classified as Doers or Non-Doers
The interviewer then asks questions to understand why they do or do not follow the behaviour to understand how they perveive the behaviour and what makes it easy or difficult for them to follow this practice.
Following the field work, the responses of Doers are compared to Non-Doers and the key differences ‘determinants’ found. Using these determinants, a social behaviour change strategy to convert Non-Doers into Doers is developed.
The same person will not be asked about multiple behaviours. The Barrier Analysis requires detailed responses, so asking about more than one behaviour can lead to over-interviewing the respondent, and lead to their providing incomplete or not well thought out responses as they grow weary of being interviewed.
Selected behaviours: 3 behaviours as described in the above section (scope of the work)
Standard sampling as defined in the guidebook is 45 doers and 45 non-doers per behaviour. For the two behaviours, that will be a totalof 180 interviews as it is not recommended to speak to the same people for different behaviours. A sample size of 45 interviews of Doers, and 45 with Non-Doers gives the best results. 45 is the minimum threshold. However, if we 45 of Doers are not identified, we consider more interviews of the Non-Doers in order to find statistically-significant differences between the two groups (e.g., interviewing 30 Doers and 60 Non-Doers). This recommended number is the result of using a sample size calculator for case-control type studies with a p0 value of 0.25, a Relative Risk of 3.0, an alpha error of 5%, and a power of 80%.
Conducting interviews requires 3 to 5 teams of 3 (1 supervisor and 2 enumerators). Four days in the field will be dedicated for each studied behaviour, thus 4×3 = 12 days in the field. The coding is carried out the preferably the same day after fieldwork, or in the following days. Note that data collection for 2 behaviours can be conducted simultaneously in the same community by 2 different groups of surveyors interviewing different households, under appropriate supervision.
The consultant(s) will produce following key outputs (subject to further refinement after consultation):
Formative study inception report: detailing the methodology including methodology, the sampling framework that will be used, proposed sources of data; and data collection and analysis procedures and tools.
Draft Study report: A draft research report that effectively and exhaustively addresses the study design shall be submitted to SC for internal review within the agreed time frame.
Presentation of the draft Study report and findings to key WASH sector stakeholders for fine-tuning and validation of recommendations and approaches
Final Research Study report: A final study report addressing all the criteria and inputs from SC and the donor will be delivered in 1 hard copy and 2 CDs to SC within the stipulated time
Field data collection from doers and non-doers according to statistically representative sample of population in the targeted area
Development of BCC framework for targeted behaviours according to DBC template
The study is expected to last for 31 consultancy days. Below is a draft schedule of activities
Literature Review of project documents and reports
Development and submission of the inception report (includes detailed methodology and study tools)
Travel to Mogadishu
Familiarization of the research instrument to the data collection team
2 weeks Field work (training of enumerators, pre-testing tools, data collection and coding ) )
Data Analysis, writing up of the draft BA report and submission
Dissemination of findings to the partners (public & private) in Mogadishu and feed-back from key stakeholders (one-day workshop) focusing on behaviour change strategies for each assessed behaviour
Presentation to the findings to the SMT in Nairobi Office
Revision, finalization of the BA report, including a SBCC component: Identification of behavioural determinants, bridging them with key SBCC strategies and activities. Submission
Lines of Communication
The consultant will report to Save the Children Senior Technical WASH Specialist and will liaise closely with the WASH PM and other relevant staff. Apart from this regular meetings and interactions with the relevant team members, if required, consultant may be asked to present his/ her work in WASH Cluster Meetings in Mogadishu as well as FMoH meetings forbroader understanding and feedback of the cluster partners and Federal Ministry of Health (MoH).
Essential and Desirable Experience/Qualifications
Save the Children is seeking an experienced consultant with the following expertise:
Advanced university degree in social science, Anthropology or other related fields.
At least 7 years of recent documented work experience in conducting WASH related field research including quantitative and qualitative studies (eg. barrier analyses for behaviour change/focus group discussions/key informant interviews/observation studies)
Demonstrated recent work experience in formative, anthropological or operational research, data management and analyses (published materials, tools, reports etc)
A reputable consultant with documented experience in conducting studies relating to WASH associated barriers analysis and Management capability to conduct formative research.
The consultant must have a strong background in quantitative and qualitative data analysis
Excellent reporting and presentation skills and Proven ability to work independently
Strong interpersonal skills and ability to effectively work in a multi-cultural environment
Experience working in/knowledge of the Somalia context
Interested candidates in the position are expected to provide the following documentation:
A technical proposal with detailed response to the TOR, with specific focus addressing the scope of work and methodology to be used
Initial work plan based on methodology outlined, and indication of availability
A financial proposal detailing the daily rate expected and initial work plan
Company profile or CV including a minimum of 3 traceable, recent and relevant references to this task
PLAN FOR DISSEMINATION AND LEARNING
The consultancy will present the preliminary findings to key stakeholders (SCI, partners, relevant government stakeholders, community leaders etc) in one feedback forum. The project team implementing and REALM as well will be responsible for ensuring feedback are given to all stakeholders, particularly children who were involved in the formative research.
Payments: The consultancy fee will be paid in three instalments: 30% upon signing the contract, 30% when the draft report is approved and 40% when the final report is approved.
The following documents will be availed for and utilized by the consultancy (for inception report):
Project document and logical framework; project work plans
Quarterly, six-monthly and annual implementation reports with all attachments
Baselines and mid-term reviews
Project monitoring/MEAL plans
Training and activity reports; lists of target institutions/ communities and criteria for choosing them.
Quarterly review meeting minutes, monitoring visit reports and MEAL data sheets
Other documents available upon request (SCI Country Annual Reports, Child Rights Situation Analyses, Country Strategic Plans, relevant national strategies, sectoral plans etc).
Code of conduct:
Save the Children’s work is based on deeply held values and principles of child safeguarding, and it is essential that our commitment to children’s rights and humanitarian principles is supported and demonstrated by all members of staff and other people working for and with Save the Children. Save the Children’s Code of Conduct sets out the standards which all staff members must adhere to and the consultant is bound to sign and abide to the Save the Children’s Code of Conduct.
Mandatory Security Training
The consultant shall be expected to go through mandatory on-line security training and submit the certificate of completion to SC before the commencement of the task. Failure to deliver this will lead to an automatic disqualification. SC will advise on the security plan on appointment.
Deadline: 27th July 2018
Subject line: FORMATIVE RESEARCH TO BARRIER ANALYSIS
Please send your application toCSS.Logisitics@savethechildren.org
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